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|58471:HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV) 1 & 2 ANTIBODIES, IgM|
|Methodology:||Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)|
|Performed:||Monday, Wednesday, Friday|
|Released:||Same day as tested|
|Specimen Collection Details|
|Collection:||One 7.5 mL serum separator tube (SST). Also acceptable: One 5 mL red top tube.|
|Handling:||Allow to clot, centrifuge and separate serum from cells immediately and pour into a plastic vial. Refrigerate. Freeze at -20º C if specimen cannot be assayed within 48 hours. Allow no more than one freeze/thaw cycle. If multiple testing is ordered, send separate specimen for this test.|
|Standard Volume:||0.5 mL serum.|
|Minimum Volume:||200 µL serum.|
|Transport:||Refrigerated, or frozen on dry ice.|
|Comments:||See also: Torch Antibodies, IgM (58941) and Torch Antibodies, IgG & IgM (58961).|
|Rejection Criteria:||Grossly contaminated, hemolyzed, lipemic, heat-inactivated, or icteric specimen; specimen frozen and thawed more than once.|
|HSV 1 and 2 IgM Antibodies Result Interpretations, ELISA Method:|
|<=0.90 IV||0.91-0.99 IV||>=1.00 IV||IV = Index Value|
|Negative: No significant level of detectable HSV antibody.||Equivocal: Repeat testing in 10-14 days may be helpful.||Positive: IgM antibodies to HSV detected, which may indicate a current or recent infection or reactivation.|
Significant cross-reactivity exists between type 1 and type 2 Herpes antibodies.
Appearance of an IgM antibody response normally occurs 7-14 days after the onset of disease. Testing immediately post-exposure is of no value without a later convalescent specimen. While the presence of IgM antibodies suggests current or recent infection, low levels of IgM antibodies may occasionally persist for more than 12 months post-infection. Such a residual response may be distinguished from early IgM response to infection by testing sera from patients 2-3 weeks later for changing levels of specific IgM antibodies.
False positive and false negative IgM test results may occur in specimens with extremely high level of rheumatoid factor and high autoimmune antibodies.
A negative serological test does not exclude the possibility of past infection. Following primary HSV infection, antibody may fall to undetectable levels and then be boosted by later clinical infection with the same or heterologous type. Such a phenomenon may lead to incorrect interpretations of seroconversion and primary infection, or negative antibody status. In addition, samples obtained too early during primary infection may not contain detectable antibody. Some persons may fail to develop detectable antibody after Herpes infection.